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Renewable energy desalination : an emerging solution to close the water gap in the Middle East and North Africa.

Contributor(s): World Bank.
Material type: materialTypeLabelBookSeries: MENA development report.Washington DC : World Bank, c2012Description: xxii, 208 pages : color illustrations, color maps ; 26 cm.Content type: text Media type: unmediated Carrier type: volumeISBN: 9780821388389 (pbk.).Subject(s): Saline water conversion -- Middle East | Saline water conversion -- Africa, North | Renewable energy sources -- Middle East | Renewable energy sources -- Africa, NorthDDC classification: 628.167 REN Online resources: Table of contents
Contents:
Overview Introduction MENA's water gap will grow fivefold by 2050 Closing MENA's water gap is costly and challenging Desalination in MENA and its energy implications Poetential for renewable energy desalination Environmental impacts of desalination CSP desalination and regional energy initiatives Conclusions Appendix A. Water demand and supply in MENA region Appendix B. Imperative for demand and supply management Appendix C. The true cost of desalination Appendix D. Summary of renewable energy policies and legislation in MENA.
Summary: The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Region is one of the most water stressed regions in the world. Water scarcity has already become a challenge to development in many of the countries. Due to increasing population and projected climate change impacts, MENA's annual water demand gap is projected to grow five-fold by 2050, from today's 42 Km3 to 200 km3 by 2050. Despite its extreme scarcity, water is managed poorly. Inefficiencies are common in the agriculture, municipal and industrial systems; and many utilities are financially unsustainable. As a result, countries overexploit their fossil aquifers and use desalination by fossil fuel to meet the water demand gap. Desalination already plays a critical role in MENA's water supply portfolio. However, desalination is costly, energy intensive and has environmental impacts. On current trends, the projection is that, by 2050, Saudi Arabia and many other countries in the region will consume for desalination most of the oil that they produce. Overexploitation of fossil aquifers is not sustainable. Neither is the use of fossil fuel for desalination to meet the growing water gap sustainable. This book outlines the challenges in terms of water (and also in terms of energy) that countries in the region face and analyzes the scope of available options to address the growing water gap. The book estimates MENA's water gap today and into the future until 2050; and presents a methodology to prioritize options to bridge the water gap, using the marginal cost of water approach. The book also assesses the viability of renewable energy desalination as an important option to close the region's water gap. The book compares the economic cost of desalination using fossil fuel and renewable energy sources, in particular the Concentrated Solar Power (CSP). The book also provides recommendations as to how CSP based desalination could ensure sustainable water supply for the region.
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Book Book Indian Institute for Human Settlements, Bangalore
628.167 REN 009037 (Browse shelf) Available 009037

Includes bibliographical references.

Overview
Introduction
MENA's water gap will grow fivefold by 2050
Closing MENA's water gap is costly and challenging
Desalination in MENA and its energy implications
Poetential for renewable energy desalination
Environmental impacts of desalination
CSP desalination and regional energy initiatives
Conclusions
Appendix A. Water demand and supply in MENA region
Appendix B. Imperative for demand and supply management
Appendix C. The true cost of desalination
Appendix D. Summary of renewable energy policies and legislation in MENA.

The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Region is one of the most water stressed regions in the world. Water scarcity has already become a challenge to development in many of the countries. Due to increasing population and projected climate change impacts, MENA's annual water demand gap is projected to grow five-fold by 2050, from today's 42 Km3 to 200 km3 by 2050. Despite its extreme scarcity, water is managed poorly. Inefficiencies are common in the agriculture, municipal and industrial systems; and many utilities are financially unsustainable. As a result, countries overexploit their fossil aquifers and use desalination by fossil fuel to meet the water demand gap. Desalination already plays a critical role in MENA's water supply portfolio. However, desalination is costly, energy intensive and has environmental impacts. On current trends, the projection is that, by 2050, Saudi Arabia and many other countries in the region will consume for desalination most of the oil that they produce. Overexploitation of fossil aquifers is not sustainable. Neither is the use of fossil fuel for desalination to meet the growing water gap sustainable. This book outlines the challenges in terms of water (and also in terms of energy) that countries in the region face and analyzes the scope of available options to address the growing water gap. The book estimates MENA's water gap today and into the future until 2050; and presents a methodology to prioritize options to bridge the water gap, using the marginal cost of water approach. The book also assesses the viability of renewable energy desalination as an important option to close the region's water gap. The book compares the economic cost of desalination using fossil fuel and renewable energy sources, in particular the Concentrated Solar Power (CSP). The book also provides recommendations as to how CSP based desalination could ensure sustainable water supply for the region.

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