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Water & wastewater infrastructure : energy efficiency and sustainability / Frank R. Spellman.

By: Spellman, Frank R.
Material type: materialTypeLabelBookPublisher: Boca Raton, FL : CRC Press,Taylor & Francis, c2013Description: xix, 443 pages : illustrations ; 26 cm.Content type: text Media type: unmediated Carrier type: volumeISBN: 9781466517851 (hbk.).Other title: Water and wastewater infrastructure.Subject(s): Waterworks -- Energy conservation | NATURE / Environmental Conservation & Protection | TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / General | TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / Water SupplyDDC classification: 628.10287 SPE Online resources: Table of contents
Contents:
Section I The Basics 1.Introduction 1.1.Setting the Stage 1.2.Sustainable Water/​Wastewater Infrastructure 1.2.1.Maintaining Sustainable Infrastructure 1.2.2.Cash Cows or Cash Dogs? 1.3.Water/​Wastewater Infrastructure Gap 1.4.Energy Efficiency: Water/​Wastewater Treatment Operations References and Recommended Reading 2.Characteristics of the Wastewater and Drinking Water Industries 2.1.Introduction 2.1.1.Wastewater and Drinking Water Terminology 2.2.Characteristics of the Wastewater Industry 2.2.1.Wastewater Treatment Process: The Model 2.3.Characteristics of the Drinking Water Industry 2.4.Capital Stock and Impact on Operations and Maintenance 2.4.1.Useful Life of Assets 2.4.2.Operating and Maintaining Capital Stock 2.5.Wastewater Capital Stock 2.6.Drinking Water Capital Stock 2.7.Costs of Providing Service 3.Water, Wastewater, and Energy Contents note continued: 3.1.Introduction 3.2.Energy Basics 3.2.1.Potential Energy 3.2.2.Kinetic Energy 3.3.Renewable and Nonrenewable Energy 3.3.1.Mix of Energy Production Changes 3.4.Units for Comparing Energy 4.Planning for a Sustainable Energy Future 4.1.Wastewater and Drinking Water Treatment Energy Usage 4.1.1.Current and Future Challenges 4.2.Fast Facts 4.3.Benchmark It! 4.3.1.What Benchmarking Is 4.3.2.Potential Results of Benchmarking 4.3.3.Targets 4.3.4.Process of Benchmarking 4.3.5.Benchmarking Steps 4.3.6.Collection of Baseline Data and Tracking Energy Use 4.4.Baseline Audit 4.4.1.Field Investigation 4.4.2.Create Equipment Inventory and Distribution of Demand and Energy Section II Energy-Efficient Equipment, Technology, and Operating Strategies 5.Energy-Efficient Equipment 5.1.Introduction 5.2.Motors 5.2.1.AC Motors Contents note continued: 5.2.2.Electric Motor Load and Efficiency 5.2.3.Determining Motor Loads 5.2.4.Determining Motor Efficiency 5.3.Variable-Frequency Drives 5.4.HVAC Enhancements 5.5.Energy-Smart Lighting 6.Energy-Efficient Operating Strategies 6.1.Introduction 6.2.Electrical Load Management 6.2.1.Rate Schedules 6.2.2.Energy Demand Management 6.2.3.Electrical Load Management Success Stories 6.3.Biosolids Management 6.3.1.Biosolids: Background Information 6.3.2.Sources of Biosolids 6.3.3.Biosolids Characteristics 6.4.Operations and Maintenance: Energy- and Cost-Saving Procedures 6.4.1.Chandler Municipal Utilities, Arizona 6.4.2.Airport Water Reclamation Facility, Prescott, Arizona 6.4.3.Somerton Municipal Water, Arizona 6.4.4.Hawaii County Department of Water Supply 6.4.5.Eastern Municipal Water District, California Contents note continued: 6.4.6.Port Drive Water Treatment Plant, Lake Havasu, Arizona 6.4.7.Truckee Meadows Water Authority, Reno, Nevada 6.4.8.Tucson Water, Arizona 6.4.9.Prescott-Chino Water Production Facility, Prescott, Arizona 6.4.10.Somerton Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant, Arizona 6.5.Inflow and Infiltration Control 6.5.1.Combined Sewer Systems 6.5.2.Basement Sump Pump Redirection Section III Energy-Efficient Technology 7.Combined Heat and Power (CHP) 7.1.Introduction 7.2.CHP Key Definitions 7.3.Calculating Total CHP System Efficiency 7.4.Calculating Effective Electric Efficiency 7.5.Selecting CHP Efficiency Metrics 7.6.Wastewater Treatment Facilities with CHP 7.7.Overview of CHP Technologies 8.Gas Turbines 8.1.Introduction 8.2.Applications 8.3.Gas Turbine Technology 8.3.1.Modes of Operation 8.3.2.Design Characteristics Contents note continued: 8.3.3.Performance Characteristics 8.3.4.Emissions 9.Microturbines 9.1.Introduction 9.2.Microturbine Applications 9.3.Microturbine Technology 9.3.1.Basic Components 9.3.2.CHP Operation 9.4.Design Characteristics 9.5.Microturbine Performance Characteristics 9.5.1.Effects of Ambient Conditions on Performance 9.5.2.Heat Recovery 9.5.3.Performance and Efficiency Enhancements 9.5.4.Maintenance 9.5.5.Fuels 9.5.6.Availability 9.5.7.Disadvantages 9.6.Emissions 10.Reciprocating Engines 10.1.Introduction 10.2.Applications 10.2.1.Combined Heat and Power 10.3.Reciprocating Engine Technology 10.4.Design Characteristics 10.5.Performance Characteristics 10.5.1.Electrical Efficiency 10.5.2.Load Performance 10.5.3.Heat Recovery 10.5.4.Performance and Efficiency Enhancements 10.5.5.Maintenance 10.5.6.Fuels Contents note continued: 10.6.Emissions 10.6.1.Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) 10.6.2.Carbon Monoxide 10.6.3.Unburned Hydrocarbons 10.6.4.Carbon Dioxide 11.Steam Turbines 11.1.Introduction 11.2.Applications 11.2.1.Industrial and CHP Applications 11.2.2.Combined-Cycle Power Plants 11.3.Steam Turbine: Basic Process and Components 11.3.1.Boilers 11.3.2.Types of Steam Turbines 11.3.3.Design Characteristics 11.4.Performance Characteristics 11.4.1.Electrical Efficiency 11.4.2.Operating Characteristics 11.4.3.Process Steam and Performance Trade-Offs 11.4.4.CHP System Efficiency 11.4.5.Performance and Efficiency Enhancements 11.4.6.Steam Reheat 11.4.7.Combustion Air Preheating 11.4.8.Maintenance 11.4.9.Fuels 11.4.10.Availability 11.5.Emissions 12.Fuel Cells 12.1.Introduction 12.2.Fuel Cells: The Basics Contents note continued: 12.2.1.Open Cells vs. Closed Cells 12.3.Hydrogen Fuel Cells: A Realistic View 12.3.1.Hydrogen Storage 12.3.2.How a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Works 12.4.CHP Applications Section IV Biomass Power and Heat Generation 13.CHP and Wastewater Biogas 13.1.Grasshopper Generation 13.2.Biomass 13.2.1.Feedstock Types 13.2.2.Composition of Biomass 13.3.Biomass for Power and Heat Generation 13.4.Biogas (Methane, CH4) 13.4.1.The 411 on Methane 13.5.Wastewater Treatment Plant Biogas 13.5.1.Anaerobic Digestion 13.6.Cogeneration Using Landfill Biogas 13.7.Biodiesel Section V Sustainability Using Renewable Energy 14.Macro- and Microhydropower 14.1.Introduction 14.2.Hydropower 14.2.1.Impoundment 14.2.2.Diversion 14.2.3.Pumped Storage 14.3.Hydropower Basic Concepts 14.3.1.Stevin's Law 14.3.2.Density and Specific Gravity Contents note continued: 14.3.3.Force and Pressure 14.3.4.Hydrostatic Pressure 14.3.5.Head 14.3.6.Flow and Discharge Rates: Water in Motion 14.3.7.Area and Velocity 14.3.8.Pressure and Velocity 14.3.9.Conservation of Energy 14.3.10.Energy Head 14.3.11.Energy Available 14.3.12.Major Head Loss 14.3.13.Minor Head Loss 14.4.Reservoir Stored Energy 14.5.Hydroturbines 14.5.1.Impulse Turbine 14.5.2.Reaction Turbine 14.6.Advanced Hydropower Technology 14.7.Hydropower Generation: Dissolved Oxygen Concerns 14.8.Bottom Line on Macrohydropower 14.9.Microhydropower Concepts 14.9.1.Microhydropower Key Terms 14.9.2.Potential Microhydropower Sites 14.9.3.Head at Potential Microhydropower Site 14.9.4.Flow at Potential Microhydropower Site 14.9.5.Economics 14.10.Permits and Water Rights 15.Solar Power 15.1.Introduction 15.2.Concentrating Solar Power Contents note continued: 15.2.1.Linear Concentrators 15.2.2.Dish/​Engine Systems 15.2.3.Power Tower System 15.2.4.Thermal Energy Storage 15.3.Photovoltaics (PV) 15.4.Solar Power Applications 15.4.1.Solar Hot Water 15.4.2.Solar Process Heat 15.5.Structure Daylighting 15.5.1.Daylight Zone 15.5.2.Window Design Considerations 15.5.3.Effective Aperture (EA) 15.5.4.Light Shelves 15.5.5.Toplighting Strategies 15.6.Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Applications 16.Wind Power 16.1.Introduction 16.2.It's All about the Wind 16.3.Air in Motion 16.4.Wind Energy 16.5.Wind Power Basics 16.6.Wind Turbine Types 16.6.1.Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbines 16.7.Turbine Features 16.8.Wind Energy and Power Calculations 16.8.1.Air-Density Correction Factors 16.8.2.Elevation and Earth's Roughness 16.8.3.Wind Turbine Rotor Efficiency 16.8.4.Derivation of Betz's Law Contents note continued: 16.8.5.Tip Speed Ratio (TSR) 16.9.Small-Scale Wind Power 16.10.Wind Power Applications in Water/​Wastewater Treatment 17.Energy Conservation Measures for Wastewater Treatment 17.1.Introduction 17.2.Pumping System Energy Conservation Measures 17.2.1.Pumping System Design 17.2.2.Pump Motors 17.2.3.Power Factor 17.2.4.Variable-Frequency Drives 17.3.Design and Control of Aeration Systems 17.3.1.ECMs for Aeration Systems 17.3.2.Control of the Aeration Process 17.3.3.Innovative and Emerging Control Strategies for Biological Nitrogen Removal 17.4.Blowers 17.4.1.High-Speed Gearless (Turbo) Blowers 17.4.2.Single-Stage Centrifugal Blowers with Inlet Guide Vanes and Variable Diffuser Vanes 17.4.3.New Diffuser Technology 17.4.4.Preventing Diffuser Fouling 17.4.5.Innovative and Emerging Energy Conservation Measures 17.4.6.UV Disinfection 17.4.7.Membrane Bioreactors Contents note continued: 17.4.8.Anoxic and Anaerobic Zone Mixing Section VI Appendices Appendix A Magnetic Bearing Turbo Blowers at the Green Bay Metropolitan Sewerage District De Pere Wastewater Treatment Facility Appendix B Turblex® Blowers and Air Flow Control Valves on the Sheboygan Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Appendix C Upgrade from Mechanical Aeration to Air-Bearing Turbo Blowers and Fine-Bubble Diffusers at the Big Gulch Wastewater Treatment Plant Appendix D Optical DO Sensor Technology and Aerator Rotor VFD Control at the City of Bartlett, Tennessee, Wastewater Treatment Plant Appendix E Advanced Aeration Control for the Oxnard, California, Wastewater Treatment Plant Appendix F DO Optimization Using Floating Pressure Blower Control in a Most Open Valve Strategy at the Narragansett Bay Commission Bucklin Point WTTP, Rhode Island Contents note continued: Appendix G Capacity and Fuel Efficiency Improvements at Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission Western Branch WWTP, Prince Georges County, Maryland Appendix H Permit-Safe and Energy-Smart Greening of Wastewater Treatment Plant Operations at the San Jose/​Santa Clara, California, Water Pollution Control Plant Appendix I Diffuser Upgrades and DO Controlled Blowers at the Waco, Texas, Metropolitan Area Regional Sewer System Wastewater Treatment Facility.
Summary: "Water and wastewater facilities use large amounts of energy in the form of electricity. One way of keeping energy costs under control is by using renewable or alternative energy supplies. This book discusses the best management practices, innovations, cost-cutting measures, and energy efficiency procedures needed to maintain top-notch functional operation. With energy use now the highest operational cost factor in water plants, the text pays considerable attention to replacing conventional energy supplies with renewable energy sources, discussing these sources and their possible application in detail"--
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Book Book Indian Institute for Human Settlements, Bangalore
628.10286 SPE 007668 (Browse shelf) Available 007668

Includes bibliographical references and index.

Section I The Basics
1.Introduction
1.1.Setting the Stage
1.2.Sustainable Water/​Wastewater Infrastructure
1.2.1.Maintaining Sustainable Infrastructure
1.2.2.Cash Cows or Cash Dogs?
1.3.Water/​Wastewater Infrastructure Gap
1.4.Energy Efficiency: Water/​Wastewater Treatment Operations
References and Recommended Reading
2.Characteristics of the Wastewater and Drinking Water Industries
2.1.Introduction
2.1.1.Wastewater and Drinking Water Terminology
2.2.Characteristics of the Wastewater Industry
2.2.1.Wastewater Treatment Process: The Model
2.3.Characteristics of the Drinking Water Industry
2.4.Capital Stock and Impact on Operations and Maintenance
2.4.1.Useful Life of Assets
2.4.2.Operating and Maintaining Capital Stock
2.5.Wastewater Capital Stock
2.6.Drinking Water Capital Stock
2.7.Costs of Providing Service
3.Water, Wastewater, and Energy
Contents note continued: 3.1.Introduction
3.2.Energy Basics
3.2.1.Potential Energy
3.2.2.Kinetic Energy
3.3.Renewable and Nonrenewable Energy
3.3.1.Mix of Energy Production Changes
3.4.Units for Comparing Energy
4.Planning for a Sustainable Energy Future
4.1.Wastewater and Drinking Water Treatment Energy Usage
4.1.1.Current and Future Challenges
4.2.Fast Facts
4.3.Benchmark It!
4.3.1.What Benchmarking Is
4.3.2.Potential Results of Benchmarking
4.3.3.Targets
4.3.4.Process of Benchmarking
4.3.5.Benchmarking Steps
4.3.6.Collection of Baseline Data and Tracking Energy Use
4.4.Baseline Audit
4.4.1.Field Investigation
4.4.2.Create Equipment Inventory and Distribution of Demand and Energy
Section II Energy-Efficient Equipment, Technology, and Operating Strategies
5.Energy-Efficient Equipment
5.1.Introduction
5.2.Motors
5.2.1.AC Motors
Contents note continued: 5.2.2.Electric Motor Load and Efficiency
5.2.3.Determining Motor Loads
5.2.4.Determining Motor Efficiency
5.3.Variable-Frequency Drives
5.4.HVAC Enhancements
5.5.Energy-Smart Lighting
6.Energy-Efficient Operating Strategies
6.1.Introduction
6.2.Electrical Load Management
6.2.1.Rate Schedules
6.2.2.Energy Demand Management
6.2.3.Electrical Load Management Success Stories
6.3.Biosolids Management
6.3.1.Biosolids: Background Information
6.3.2.Sources of Biosolids
6.3.3.Biosolids Characteristics
6.4.Operations and Maintenance: Energy- and Cost-Saving Procedures
6.4.1.Chandler Municipal Utilities, Arizona
6.4.2.Airport Water Reclamation Facility, Prescott, Arizona
6.4.3.Somerton Municipal Water, Arizona
6.4.4.Hawaii County Department of Water Supply
6.4.5.Eastern Municipal Water District, California
Contents note continued: 6.4.6.Port Drive Water Treatment Plant, Lake Havasu, Arizona
6.4.7.Truckee Meadows Water Authority, Reno, Nevada
6.4.8.Tucson Water, Arizona
6.4.9.Prescott-Chino Water Production Facility, Prescott, Arizona
6.4.10.Somerton Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant, Arizona
6.5.Inflow and Infiltration Control
6.5.1.Combined Sewer Systems
6.5.2.Basement Sump Pump Redirection
Section III Energy-Efficient Technology
7.Combined Heat and Power (CHP)
7.1.Introduction
7.2.CHP Key Definitions
7.3.Calculating Total CHP System Efficiency
7.4.Calculating Effective Electric Efficiency
7.5.Selecting CHP Efficiency Metrics
7.6.Wastewater Treatment Facilities with CHP
7.7.Overview of CHP Technologies
8.Gas Turbines
8.1.Introduction
8.2.Applications
8.3.Gas Turbine Technology
8.3.1.Modes of Operation
8.3.2.Design Characteristics
Contents note continued: 8.3.3.Performance Characteristics
8.3.4.Emissions
9.Microturbines
9.1.Introduction
9.2.Microturbine Applications
9.3.Microturbine Technology
9.3.1.Basic Components
9.3.2.CHP Operation
9.4.Design Characteristics
9.5.Microturbine Performance Characteristics
9.5.1.Effects of Ambient Conditions on Performance
9.5.2.Heat Recovery
9.5.3.Performance and Efficiency Enhancements
9.5.4.Maintenance
9.5.5.Fuels
9.5.6.Availability
9.5.7.Disadvantages
9.6.Emissions
10.Reciprocating Engines
10.1.Introduction
10.2.Applications
10.2.1.Combined Heat and Power
10.3.Reciprocating Engine Technology
10.4.Design Characteristics
10.5.Performance Characteristics
10.5.1.Electrical Efficiency
10.5.2.Load Performance
10.5.3.Heat Recovery
10.5.4.Performance and Efficiency Enhancements
10.5.5.Maintenance
10.5.6.Fuels
Contents note continued: 10.6.Emissions
10.6.1.Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)
10.6.2.Carbon Monoxide
10.6.3.Unburned Hydrocarbons
10.6.4.Carbon Dioxide
11.Steam Turbines
11.1.Introduction
11.2.Applications
11.2.1.Industrial and CHP Applications
11.2.2.Combined-Cycle Power Plants
11.3.Steam Turbine: Basic Process and Components
11.3.1.Boilers
11.3.2.Types of Steam Turbines
11.3.3.Design Characteristics
11.4.Performance Characteristics
11.4.1.Electrical Efficiency
11.4.2.Operating Characteristics
11.4.3.Process Steam and Performance Trade-Offs
11.4.4.CHP System Efficiency
11.4.5.Performance and Efficiency Enhancements
11.4.6.Steam Reheat
11.4.7.Combustion Air Preheating
11.4.8.Maintenance
11.4.9.Fuels
11.4.10.Availability
11.5.Emissions
12.Fuel Cells
12.1.Introduction
12.2.Fuel Cells: The Basics
Contents note continued: 12.2.1.Open Cells vs. Closed Cells
12.3.Hydrogen Fuel Cells: A Realistic View
12.3.1.Hydrogen Storage
12.3.2.How a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Works
12.4.CHP Applications
Section IV Biomass Power and Heat Generation
13.CHP and Wastewater Biogas
13.1.Grasshopper Generation
13.2.Biomass
13.2.1.Feedstock Types
13.2.2.Composition of Biomass
13.3.Biomass for Power and Heat Generation
13.4.Biogas (Methane, CH4)
13.4.1.The 411 on Methane
13.5.Wastewater Treatment Plant Biogas
13.5.1.Anaerobic Digestion
13.6.Cogeneration Using Landfill Biogas
13.7.Biodiesel
Section V Sustainability Using Renewable Energy
14.Macro- and Microhydropower
14.1.Introduction
14.2.Hydropower
14.2.1.Impoundment
14.2.2.Diversion
14.2.3.Pumped Storage
14.3.Hydropower Basic Concepts
14.3.1.Stevin's Law
14.3.2.Density and Specific Gravity
Contents note continued: 14.3.3.Force and Pressure
14.3.4.Hydrostatic Pressure
14.3.5.Head
14.3.6.Flow and Discharge Rates: Water in Motion
14.3.7.Area and Velocity
14.3.8.Pressure and Velocity
14.3.9.Conservation of Energy
14.3.10.Energy Head
14.3.11.Energy Available
14.3.12.Major Head Loss
14.3.13.Minor Head Loss
14.4.Reservoir Stored Energy
14.5.Hydroturbines
14.5.1.Impulse Turbine
14.5.2.Reaction Turbine
14.6.Advanced Hydropower Technology
14.7.Hydropower Generation: Dissolved Oxygen Concerns
14.8.Bottom Line on Macrohydropower
14.9.Microhydropower Concepts
14.9.1.Microhydropower Key Terms
14.9.2.Potential Microhydropower Sites
14.9.3.Head at Potential Microhydropower Site
14.9.4.Flow at Potential Microhydropower Site
14.9.5.Economics
14.10.Permits and Water Rights
15.Solar Power
15.1.Introduction
15.2.Concentrating Solar Power
Contents note continued: 15.2.1.Linear Concentrators
15.2.2.Dish/​Engine Systems
15.2.3.Power Tower System
15.2.4.Thermal Energy Storage
15.3.Photovoltaics (PV)
15.4.Solar Power Applications
15.4.1.Solar Hot Water
15.4.2.Solar Process Heat
15.5.Structure Daylighting
15.5.1.Daylight Zone
15.5.2.Window Design Considerations
15.5.3.Effective Aperture (EA)
15.5.4.Light Shelves
15.5.5.Toplighting Strategies
15.6.Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Applications
16.Wind Power
16.1.Introduction
16.2.It's All about the Wind
16.3.Air in Motion
16.4.Wind Energy
16.5.Wind Power Basics
16.6.Wind Turbine Types
16.6.1.Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbines
16.7.Turbine Features
16.8.Wind Energy and Power Calculations
16.8.1.Air-Density Correction Factors
16.8.2.Elevation and Earth's Roughness
16.8.3.Wind Turbine Rotor Efficiency
16.8.4.Derivation of Betz's Law
Contents note continued: 16.8.5.Tip Speed Ratio (TSR)
16.9.Small-Scale Wind Power
16.10.Wind Power Applications in Water/​Wastewater Treatment
17.Energy Conservation Measures for Wastewater Treatment
17.1.Introduction
17.2.Pumping System Energy Conservation Measures
17.2.1.Pumping System Design
17.2.2.Pump Motors
17.2.3.Power Factor
17.2.4.Variable-Frequency Drives
17.3.Design and Control of Aeration Systems
17.3.1.ECMs for Aeration Systems
17.3.2.Control of the Aeration Process
17.3.3.Innovative and Emerging Control Strategies for Biological Nitrogen Removal
17.4.Blowers
17.4.1.High-Speed Gearless (Turbo) Blowers
17.4.2.Single-Stage Centrifugal Blowers with Inlet Guide Vanes and Variable Diffuser Vanes
17.4.3.New Diffuser Technology
17.4.4.Preventing Diffuser Fouling
17.4.5.Innovative and Emerging Energy Conservation Measures
17.4.6.UV Disinfection
17.4.7.Membrane Bioreactors
Contents note continued: 17.4.8.Anoxic and Anaerobic Zone Mixing
Section VI Appendices
Appendix A Magnetic Bearing Turbo Blowers at the Green Bay Metropolitan Sewerage District De Pere Wastewater Treatment Facility
Appendix B Turblex® Blowers and Air Flow Control Valves on the Sheboygan Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant
Appendix C Upgrade from Mechanical Aeration to Air-Bearing Turbo Blowers and Fine-Bubble Diffusers at the Big Gulch Wastewater Treatment Plant
Appendix D Optical DO Sensor Technology and Aerator Rotor VFD Control at the City of Bartlett, Tennessee, Wastewater Treatment Plant
Appendix E Advanced Aeration Control for the Oxnard, California, Wastewater Treatment Plant
Appendix F DO Optimization Using Floating Pressure Blower Control in a Most Open Valve Strategy at the Narragansett Bay Commission Bucklin Point WTTP, Rhode Island
Contents note continued: Appendix G Capacity and Fuel Efficiency Improvements at Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission Western Branch WWTP, Prince Georges County, Maryland
Appendix H Permit-Safe and Energy-Smart Greening of Wastewater Treatment Plant Operations at the San Jose/​Santa Clara, California, Water Pollution Control Plant
Appendix I Diffuser Upgrades and DO Controlled Blowers at the Waco, Texas, Metropolitan Area Regional Sewer System Wastewater Treatment Facility.

"Water and wastewater facilities use large amounts of energy in the form of electricity. One way of keeping energy costs under control is by using renewable or alternative energy supplies. This book discusses the best management practices, innovations, cost-cutting measures, and energy efficiency procedures needed to maintain top-notch functional operation. With energy use now the highest operational cost factor in water plants, the text pays considerable attention to replacing conventional energy supplies with renewable energy sources, discussing these sources and their possible application in detail"--

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